Monday, August 24, 2020

Student press freedom Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Understudy press opportunity - Assignment Example The opportunity of the press is very huge, with the end goal that a couple of legislators have alluded to the open press as the fourth bequest, basically presenting on it a similar level of significance and essentialness as the other three parts of the legislature. It can direct its own requests looking for truth, for the sake of open premium, as analytical news coverage in which certain oddities including open assets can be revealed, for instance. Opportunity of the press conveys with it immense powers yet forces the exacting measures of morals and standards embraced by the individuals from the press who think about their activity as a calling. All things considered, the press alludes initially to past systems in which news and data are acquired from papers, yet in todays computerized world, press likewise alludes to a wide range of media accessible, similar to print, radio, TV, and Internet (messages, web journals, and interpersonal interaction destinations) where data can spread r apidly without a doubt on an overall premise. The option to practice this opportunity is equal with all the obligations to practice it in a dependable way, to forestall mishandles, advance government assistance, and keep up journalistic freedom. This paper talks about a portion of the issues including the laws on media, and specifically, the particular sub-subject of opportunity of the understudy press. In such manner, understudies who work in their own understudy or school distributions learn firsthand the fundamentals of what dependable news coverage is tied in with, increasing significant involvement with the activity of this significant essential protected right.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Confederate General Robert Edward Lee essays

Confederate General Robert Edward Lee articles General Robert Edward Lee was a skilled Confederate general whose military ability was most likely the best single explanation in propping the Confederacy up during the four-year American common war. His military vocation was extraordinary, and its most significant piece was his job in the common war. For a year he was military specialist to the leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, and was then placed responsible for the military in northern Virginia. A portion of his significant fights incorporated those of Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, Antietam, and Gettysburg. Lee was made the main official of every Confederate armed force in mid 1865 (all desire for the south was lost around this time); after two months the war was finished by his acquiescence at Appomattox Court House. Lee was conceived on January 19, 1807, in Stratford, Virginia. His dad was Lighthorse Harry Lee ( a progressive war saint of sorts). Youthful Lee was educated at West Point Military Academy. At the point when he graduated in 1829, he was second in his group, winning him a charge as second lieutenant in the specialists. Later around the same time he wedded Mary Custis, who was the little girl of Martha Washingtons grandson. He had seven kids, Agnes, Annie, Mary, Mildred, George Washington Custis Lee, Robert Edward Lee Jr., and William Henry Fitzhugh Lee. Proceeding with his military vocation, Lee turned out to be first lieutenant in 1836, and after that chief in 1838. He celebrated himself in the skirmishes of the Mexican War and was harmed in the assault of Chapultepec in 1847; he got his third brevet advancement in rank for his excellent accomplishments . He was picked director of the U.S. Military Academy and later was chosen colonel of mounted force. He was accountable for the Department of Texas in 1860. The following year, Lee was called to Washington, D.C., when war between the North and South was moving nearer. President Abraham Lincoln had chosen to offer order of the Union military to him, yet Lee ... <!

Saturday, July 18, 2020

How Eclectic Therapy Helps a Clients Needs

How Eclectic Therapy Helps a Client's Needs Phobias Treatment Print How Eclectic Therapy Helps a Clients Needs By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Updated on January 07, 2020 Tetra Images/Getty Images More in Phobias Treatment Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Types In the 1940s and 1950s, most therapists rigidly adhered to a single style of treatment. Since the 1970s, therapists started to draw ideas from different therapeutic approaches. Today, eclectic therapy is the most common. Eclectic therapy is a more flexible and multifaceted approach that allows the therapist to use the most effective methods available to address their client’s individual needs. Some therapists who dont like how the term seems insufficiently focused might refer to it as multi-modal therapy. Some therapists adhere largely to a single orientation, such as ?psychoanalysis or cognitive-behavioral theory, but use eclectic techniques as needed. Others self-identify as eclectic in orientation, utilizing whichever techniques work best in any given situation. Either way, it is important that the therapist possesses a solid understanding of each theory for the techniques she uses. HMOs and Eclectic Therapy The HMO (Health Management Organizations) approach to healthcare has furthered the eclectic therapy movement. This is because, in order to receive reimbursement, therapists have to prove the treatment applied is the best one for the patients problem. Best practices are supported by clinical evidence. Therefore, if an existential therapist wants to get paid by the HMO for specific phobia treatment, he has to use cognitive behavioral therapy techniques because research shows them to be the most effective. Eclectic Therapy Is Effective for Mutism Mutism is a phobia of talking most commonly diagnosed in children that can lead to anxiety and social phobia (social anxiety disorder). All phobias are an anxiety disorder, and children suffering from mutism are likely to present with moderate to severe anxiety. Eclectic therapy is the most common therapeutic approach to address mutism. A successful treatment program for mutism can include: Play therapyFamily therapyPharmacotherapy, medication Taping, although not suitable for all children, is also an effective, eclectic approach to mutism. Your child repeatedly listens to a recording of themselves speaking, which has been edited to sound like they are at school or other stressful settings. Brief Eclectic Therapy Effectively Treats PTSD Brief eclectic therapy is one of the best choices for treatment if the PTSD patient wants to make meaning out of their traumatic experience and learn lessons from it. Anxiety disorders, such as the three types of phobia (specific phobia, social phobia, and agoraphobia) commonly accompany a post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis. In a study published in the European Journal of Psychotraumatology, researchers integrated elements from three treatment approaches to creating their successful eclectic treatment program: The psychodynamic approach helped those with PTSD to integrate the dark side of human tragedy into their personal biological narrative in a healthy way.The cognitive-behavioral approach was applied by repeatedly exposing the patient to the traumatic event until anxiety fades.The researchers relied on directive psychotherapy to address clients grief by creating a farewell ritual at the end of treatment using memorabilia. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Analysis Of The Sides Of Paradise By F. Scott Fitzgerald

Eric Easter Erin Brescia Literature 221 22 March 2015 Amory Learns the Ropes of Love and Money and Peace Romanticism in a young man’s life can be complicated involving love and money. Amory is caught in the midst of balancing the two. Literary realism is a movement which began in France and eventually came to America as a response to the romantic era in which characters, settings, and plots were all rather idealized and pretty in some way. Literary realism is a movement which began in France and eventually came to America as a response to the romantic era in which characters, settings, and plots were all rather idealized and pretty in some way. In â€Å"The Sides of Paradise† by F. Scott Fitzgerald, in 1913 at age seventeen, Amory enters Princeton University. In his freshman year, he lives with Kerry Holiday and Tom D’Invilliers and he begins a friendship with Alec Connage. Amory begins to write poetry and vows to make more of his abilities in his sophomore year primarily concerned with his own accomplishments. The romanticism in the story goes back and forth betw een the Amory entering the school and growing up experiences with his wealthy mother. Amory begins to fit in and the story focuses on his accomplishments. Around this time World War had began and it may have had a fair amount of effect towards Amory. World War I started on July 28, 1914, when Austria-Hungary announced war on Serbia. This apparently little clash between two nations spread quickly: soon, Germany,Show MoreRelatedThe American Dream in The Great Gatsby and This Side of Paradise1382 Words   |  6 PagesFrances Scott Fitzgerald was born on September 24th, 1896 in St. Paul Minnesota and died of a heart attack in an apartment in Hollywood on December 21st, 1940. Throughout his career, Fitzgerald wrote many works, traveled the world, and served in the United States Army. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote mostly short stories but became famous because of his novel This Side of Paradise and became even more famous because of The Great Gatsby which was released in 1925. The time period in which Fitzgerald livedRead MoreThis Side Of Paradise By F. Scott Fitzgerald1631 Words   |  7 PagesWhat makes Amory Blaine uniquely American in the novel â€Å"This Side of Paradise† In the novel, â€Å"This Side of Paradise† authored by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Amory Blain is portrayed as a protagonist who searches his identity by looking at those people that he admires. However, these people block him from finding his true self. He appears to be more vacuous and relies mostly on his breathtaking handsomeness and his wealth in order to get well with life. The novel begins by describing the family backgroundRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2473 Words   |  10 Pages F. Scott Fitzgerald Time is a meaningful concept in Fitzgerald’s, The Great Gatsby. In which dreams and memories are very important. Believing in dreams, even when the time for that dream on earth to exist has long since passed. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s writings closely mirror his own life for often explore the human struggle between hope and disillusionment. The Great Gatsby is filled with many characters who live hopeless, lonely lives, even though they have all the money one could want.Read More Fitzgerald and Short Story Writing Essay1370 Words   |  6 PagesFitzgerald and Short Story Writing Although Fitzgerald today is usually considered a novelist, in his lifetime he was more well-known for his short stories. He was a prolific writer of short stories, and published around 160 of them (Bruccoli xiii). Many literary critics often separate â€Å"Fitzgerald the novel writer† from â€Å"Fitzgerald the short story writer†. In his own life, Fitzgerald felt somewhat of a disconnection between his ‘literary’ career as a novelist and his more professionalRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby2385 Words   |  10 Pageswrite because you want to say something, you write because you have something to say, F. Scott Fitzgerald (F. Scott Fitzgerald Quote- Brainy Quote). Not only did he write well written novels and short stories, he wrote them in such a way to inspire and entertain his generation and future generations. F. Scott Fitzgerald was a leading author in America s Jazz age- the twenties. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was born on September 24, 1896 in St. Paul, Minnesota. His father, Edward, was an unsuccessfulRead More Hemingway and Fitzgerald Essay1423 Words   |  6 PagesHemingway and Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald, the parties of one of the most famously infamous relationships in literary history met for the first time in late April 1925 at The Dingo Bar, a Paris hangout for the bohemian set. In his novel A Moveable Feast (published posthumously) Hemingway describes his first impressions of Fitzgerald: â€Å"The first time I ever met Scott Fitzgerald a very strange thing happened. Many strange things happened with Scott, but thisRead MoreEssay The Great Gatsby2606 Words   |  11 Pages1924, The Fitzgeralds left for France. There, F. Scott Fitzgerald hoped to indulge his literary appetite without distraction. He wrote The Great Gatsby during the summer and fall in Valescure near St. Raphael, having conceived the story much before then. (Matthew J. Bruccoli considers the final draft the product of a three-year process of evolution that included revisions at a stage when most other writers are finished with their work.) During the winter of 1924-25, The Fitzgeralds traveled toRead MoreEssay on The Great Gatsby: An Important Literary Work1493 Words   |  6 Pages That can certainly be said about F. Scott Fitzgerald and his work, The Great Gatsby. Before one can discuss the depth of a novel, one has to provide a brief author biography. According to Wikipedia, Fitzgerald was born September 24, 1896, and died December 21, 1940. He was an American author of short stories and novels, his work is the paradigm writing of the Jazz Age; a term he coined himself. He wrote and finished four novels: This Side of Paradise, the Beautiful and Damned, TenderRead MoreThe American Nightmare2241 Words   |  9 Pagesromantic readiness such as I have never found in any other person and which it is not likely I shall ever find again† (Fitzgerald 6). In The Great Gatsby, the narrator, Nick Carraway, was describing his neighbor’s goal of marrying a woman named Daisy. Gatsby, however, did not realize the futility of his dream which ended up costing him his life. The Great Gatsby was written by Fitzgerald in 1925 and takes place in the summer of 1922. The belief that anyone could get rich through hard work was still aliveRead MoreThe Great Gatsby Analysis5626 Words   |  23 PagesIntroduction â€Å"The Great Gatsby†Ã‚  is a  novel  by the  American  author  F. Scott Fitzgerald. First published in 1925, it is set on  Long Islands  North Shore  and in  New York City  from spring to autumn of 1922. The novel takes place following the  First World War. American society enjoyed prosperity during the â€Å"roaring†Ã‚  as the economy soared. At the same

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Multiracial Families Multiracial People - 1174 Words

Compared to Single race individuals, multiracial people have a wider variety of ways to define their ethnic identity. For example, a multiracial person who has two or more races could choose to identify exclusively as one race, or identify with both groups. Another option would be to go beyond the standard individual race options and identify as â€Å"multiracial† a category that defines ethnic characteristics in terms of the shared experiences of people who are multiracial, as distinct from individual race groups. Yet, there is a plethora of research examining what factors influence the extent to which multiracial people come to identify with the multiracial category. (Giamo, Schmitt, Outten, 2012) When The Rejection-Identification model is used it suggests that all encompassing discrimination represents rejection from the broader society and, harms psychological health. (Giamo, Schmitt, Outten, 2012) Until laws were federally overturned in 1967, most U.S. states banned marriages and relationships between White and non-White people. Biracial and multiracial children were once considered illicit results of such illegal marriages and relationships. The multiracial child and adolescent population in the U.S. is growing rapidly with a 32% increase in 2010 since the previous U.S. census (Humes, Jones, Ramirez, 2011). Multiracial children are now the largest demographic group among U.S. citizens under the age of 18. This remarkable increase is because mixed marriages andShow MoreRelatedMultiracial Identity in Essays by Julia Alvarez and Danzy Senna876 Words   |  4 PagesMultiracial Identity in Essays by Julia Alvarez and Danzy Senna The essays of Julia Alvarez and Danzy Senna address issues of multiracial identity important in their younger years as they grew up daughters of a multiethnic and multiracial background. Despite the slight generational differences, the same issues are as important today as they were twenty or thirty years ago. The concept of one being multiracial is a relatively new concept. In the past, a person with a mixed racial backgroundRead MoreThe For Multiracial Marriages And Multiracial Individual Identity1661 Words   |  7 Pagesto capture a phemenon poised to reshape how race is actually lived in America: the increase in multiracial marriages and births, which almost certainly will lead to more blended populations in future generations. As this trend continues, it will blur the racial fault lines of the last half of the twentieth century. The nation is not there yet. But the evidence for multiracial marriages and multiracial individual identity shows an unmistakable softening of boundaries that should lead to new ways ofRead MorePersuasive Essay On Racism1654 Words   |  7 PagesHave a Dream† speech by Martin Luther King Jr. said on August 28, 1963. Almost 54 years later this dream has still not been accomplished. People get judged on their skin color and many other things all the t ime and it isn’t right. Not everybody of the same race, or religion, or sexual orientation are all the same. Racism is a horrible, horrible thing that many people in America experience. Racism and slavery go back many, many years ago. All the way back starting in the 17th century. Since then we haveRead MoreBy Thomas Chatterton Williams s Poem, As Black908 Words   |  4 Pagesto paint a picture of a world where the sight of interracial families was still considered an oddity and shows how, over the decades, society has slowly became more acceptable towards the idea. He begins the essay briefly discussing the ignorance of people during the late 1980’s while also elaborating what hardships African Americans have dealt with over the past century. He explains that even with the progression of interracial families and equality of African Americans, a new problem has now risenRead MoreHow Interracial Marriage Affects Children2853 Words   |  12 Pagesthe reality. These days, mixed-color families and couples are common. I have personally seen many cases. Interracial marriages happen everywhere. Even in Korea where people are proud of a five thousand year of history of homogeneous population, interracial marriages occur. What is the interracial marriage? It means marriage between different races that is a form of exogamy. The term of interracial marriage is synonymous with interethnic marriage, multiracial marriage, multiethnic marriage, and mixedRead MoreAmerica s Perception Of Me And My Self Identification968 Words   |  4 Pagesof race that discredits self-identification; it is time that we acknowledge multiracial and multicultural individuals. Yo soy un mexicano blanco, and this a story of how I overcame the dilemma between society’s perception of me and my self-identification. I am a product of illegal immigration: a second generation Mexican American. My mother traveled to the United States at the age of twelve, born in Mexico to a family of farm hands. Poles apart, my father is a third generation White American JewRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1264 Words   |  6 Pagestimes of Huckleberry Finn, a familial relationship between a white boy and a black slave would be deemed unacceptable and in current times multiracial relationships are still considered taboo. Throughout history the relationships between blacks and whites has been difficult. From as early as the 14th century, whites have been oppressing blacks and other people of color. In 1639, black slaves were prohibited from carrying firearms by a Virginia law, which prescribed 20 lashes for violations of theRead MoreDifferences Between Multiracial And Single Race Development1762 Words   |  8 Pages Differences in Multiracial and Single-Race Development Lucas Tran Palm Beach State College Abstract The purpose of this paper was to look into the differences in development between those of a single ethnic background and those of multi-ethnic background. This paper goes on to glance at development in terms of the sociocultural theory and the ecological systems theory. It takes language development, the development of an identity, and the interactions with society in considerationRead MoreRacism From Cooper s Book The Last Of The Mohicans 1818 Words   |  8 Pagesthemes in the novel which offers derogatory and stereotypical concerns to people of various races. In a more stringent analysis, the racial stereotypic statements from the book drive racial and cultural tolerance along with the societal inequalities which are set forth by Cooper. The author does not only use the stereotypes to further the racial barriers but also support and build the plot of the book promoting the idea that people from different racial and cultural upbringing can be divided on racialRead MoreChangin g Perspectives1084 Words   |  5 PagesChanging Perspective Linda Collazo PSY/220 May 29, 2011 Abigail McNeely Changing Perspective People, especially diverse people of contemporary times commonly look at other people, situations, or life events with different perspectives. Sometimes looking at other people, situations, and life events with different perspectives cause people to make snap judgments without factual knowledge. Contributors such as personal beliefs, religion, culture, mood, personality, and relative

Alberti and urban context Free Essays

Among Renaissance architects, Leon Batista Alberti was perhaps the most visionary authority on urban context and city planning. Though he was not an urban planner in the modern sense, he had a keen understanding of the city as an integrated, organic whole, and his designs and writings reveal his view that cities should be well-ordered and buildings should integrate themselves smoothly into that overall fabric.   In this regard, he was well ahead of his time and anticipated the ideas of urban context that exist today. We will write a custom essay sample on Alberti and urban context or any similar topic only for you Order Now Despite his visionary skill and prowess at architecture, Alberti (1404-72) was actually not a professional architect and seems never to have actually even supervised the construction of any of his works.   He was a polymath, or â€Å"Renaissance man† – cultured, well-educated, and well-versed in various academic fields, from art and religion to science and mathematics. According to art historians Ludwig Heydenreich and Wolfgang Lotz, Alberti â€Å"remained to the end the adviser who laid down the general lines and occasionally gave instruction for details . . . but he never set one stone on another.†[1]   Biographer Anthony Grafton’s description is even more to the point – â€Å"an impresario of society and space.†[2] Indeed, Alberti lacked the practical building experience most contemporary architects had, mainly because he was trained to advise and administer rather than actually build.   Born illegitimate but privileged in Genoa, he was well-educated as a youth and in 1428 took both a degree in canon law and orders in the Catholic Church. For much of the remainder of his life, Alberti served as an administrator and advisor to the popes, most notably Nicholas V, a friend from youth, who hired him to consult on major building projects in Rome.   Though mostly a career church administrator, Alberti pursued a wide array of intellectual interests and â€Å"presented himself as a master of all the rational arts of living upon which his contemporaries set great store.†[3] In accordance with the Renaissance’s reverence for ancient Greek and Roman models, Alberti drew heavily from antiquity – not merely for decoration (which he believed should be used sparingly and tastefully, not simply for the sake of decoration alone), but for proportion and, more importantly, placement within a given physical and historical context. For example, in one of his first major works, the church of San Francesco at Rimini (whose renovation and redesign he supervised around 1450), Alberti used exterior motifs drawn from the area’s ancient monuments, varying these to suit the building itself and thus let it reflect the local architectural, cultural, and political contexts. The church’s faà §ade uses simple forms and a scale suited to the buildings around it, because, says Heydenreich, no single person’s vision would dominate that setting: â€Å"[It] was the product of a collaboration between patron, adviser, and working architects. . . . ‘Local styles’ of this kind occasionally appear, but only where the political structure of the region favours them. . . .†[4]   In this sense, he heralded the post-modernists of the late twentieth century, who believe in urban fabric and context rather simply in designing buildings with no relationship to their surroundings. Alberti’s works in Florence between 1455 and 1470 demonstrate, in Heydenreich’s words, â€Å"[how] deeply the traditional forces in a city can influence the idiom of an architect.†[5]   There, his church of Santa Maria Novello draws heavily from local Tuscan styles and fuses them with a large Roman scale (as mandated by the Pope), making a distinctive building that fits with its prominent neighboring structures. (Though he used local elements freely, Alberti rarely directly imitated other buildings; when he borrowed forms or elements, he tended to fuse them with those on nearby structures.)   Also, and perhaps more importantly, it embraces a unity of design, both within itself and in relation to the buildings around it, so that it does not appear incongruous or artificially imposed on its immediate context. Alberti also aimed to site buildings according to surveys he conducted, in keeping with his mathematical and cartographic skills.   Using a measuring disk he created, his survey of Rome (conducted around 1444, when he first entered architecture) â€Å"allowed him to establish the radial coordinates of Rome’s main churches and the towers on the city walls and to plot those in plan.† [1] L Heydenreich W Lotz, Architecture in Italy, 1400 to 1600, Penguin, London, 1974, p. 27. [2] A Grafton, Leon Batista Alberti, Hill Wang, New York, 2000, p. 263. [3] Grafton, p. 21. [4] Heydenreich Lotz, p. 32. [5] Heydenreich Lotz, p. 33. [6] R Tavernor, On Alberti and the art of building, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1998, p. 13. How to cite Alberti and urban context, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Operations Management Oil and Gas

Abstract Operations management is a branch of management that deals with operational activities in an organization. This research has been undertaken to discuss operations management and its application in oil and gas industry. The paper is written using secondary sources to discuss the scope of operations management.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Operations Management: Oil and Gas specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Introduction Operations management is a branch of management that deals with the designing and supervision of operational processes in a business organization. Operations management covers the responsibility over all processes that involve the production of goods and services as well as the delivery of such productions to the final consumers. In its duties, an operations management department ensures that processes are planned for and executed in an efficient and effective way to satisfy the needs of the organization and its customers. This paper seeks to discuss concepts of operations management. The paper will look into the history, functions, case studies, advantages, disadvantages and factors that affect the department among others. The paper will then look into the operations management’s involvement in oil and gas companies. Operations Management Business enterprises entail the provision of goods and services to their immediate customers. For the finished goods or offered services to be available to consumers in a state that will satisfy the needs and desires of the consumers, measures must be undertaken by the producing organization to ensure that quality, quantity as well as the time frame of the production is appropriate with respect to the demands of consumers. Meeting the needs of consumers is, however, a process that begins with the search for raw materials which are then processed to be goods and finally supplied to the consumers. Processes of activities suc h as extraction of raw materials or resources, their transportation, their processing and their final distribution involve operational activities. It is the move to supervise and manage these activities that derives the basis of operations management. Operations management ensures â€Å"effective management of resources and activities that produce or deliver goods and services of any business† (Sox 1).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Operations management therefore involves the management of â€Å"people, materials, equipments and information resources that a business may need† (Sox 1) in its daily activities. The department thus outlines and then manages all that pertains to the production of goods and services. The operations management is actually dominant in almost every stage of any given supply chain and is diverse with a variety of titles that at time c an include â€Å"production planner, inventory manager, logistics manager, procurement manager and supply chain manager† (Sox 1) among others. History of Operations Management The history of operations management stems all the way back to the eighteenth century. In the management of production activities, operations changes were, for example, realized in the labor system. In England, for instance, the textile industry registered operational changes with human labor being replaced with the use of machines. Inventions of industrial equipments also lead to adjustment in methods of production in the textile industry at the time. In the year 1785, steam engine was invented providing more options in the operations field. Administration of operations activities in business aspects, however, took its significant development in the twentieth century with introduction of theories and principles over how operations should be sufficiently managed. In the year 1911, for example, Fredrick Taylor developed operations management principles that involved a scientific approach. Under his postulations, Fredrick established that the processes in a production activity can be monitored and analyzed using a scientific approach. According to him, the production processes required a deep understanding for an effective and efficient management approach. Another idea over management that he presented was the fact that people are different in nature and an understanding is necessary so that an individual worker can be placed in the kind of job that he or she can do best. After identification of an individual’s best suited department of work, a provision for training is made for better work output by the individual. The idea of motivation to workers to improve on the outcome of operational processes was also provided for by the theory which in addition established that the management of an organization should be distinguished from the entity’s workers. Taylor establis hed the basis of improving the productivity of employees as well as machinery that an organization employs in its production process. Further developments in operations management was realized in the motor industry with introduction of â€Å"assembly line manufacturing† by Ford company (Business 1).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Operations Management: Oil and Gas specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Operational procedures were developed for the production of vehicles that were cheap and at the same time long lasting. In this approach, the company had to adopt production techniques that would help them cut on their production cost and at the same time enable them to produce durable products. The company then adopted a â€Å"vertical integration technique† (Business 1) and a well â€Å"coordinated supply and production† (Business 1) activities. Operations management was then advanced to conside r strategies in production processes that would give companies advantage in the market for their products. Major interest was then developed in the management of human resource as an approach to operations management. Factors that affected the level of productivity of workers were by the year 1930 being researched on with the aim of establishing optimal conditions for better productions. Later developments then involved the application of technology in designing and monitoring operation processes in organizations. Operations management is however still on its development with focus being made on its elements such as â€Å"market focus, globalization, quality management systems, supply chain management and business process analysis, improvement or reengineering† (Business 1) among others. The history of operations managements is therefore based on introductions of new methods and technologies that are applicable in production processes. Developments such as standardization, es tablishments of factories, specialization and division of labor in the eighteenth century were therefore the foundation of development of the field of operations management. The developments were later enhanced by establishment of mass production approach in operations, quality management and the later developments in technology that enriched the operations management department towards the end of the twentieth century (Khanna 8). Factors Affecting Development of Operations Management Operations management has, along its, history been characterized with a lot of changes that have ensured its evolution over time to its current level. One of the developments that the management has realized is for instance the diversification of its areas of application in any given institution. Formerly, the operations management was an activity meant for the production processes in factories only. The departments that immediately surrounds manufacturing such as distribution sectors were then integra ted with manufacturing to form a production system.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The later inclusion of service provisions into the department in the second half of the twentieth century was also a development. These changes in the structure of administration in the operations management department have been driven by a lot of factors in the business environment. One of the drivers to changes in the operations management has been the wave of globalization in the business environment. Globalization moved to integrate the world into one economy in which trade barriers were greatly reduced or eliminated by governments and this had impacts on organizations. Former steps that were taken to protect domestic industries from international competition were liberalized giving more freedom to international trade. Consequently, competition in every market was increased following infiltration of markets by foreign investors. The increased competition as instigated by globalization has been a drive to changes in the department of management. Firms have continuously been force d to look for appropriate avenues to maintain the customer satisfaction levels together with efficiency and affectivity in their production processes for profitability in the price competitive markets. This has therefore put pressure for critical adjustments in the management (Rowbotham, Azhashemi and Galloway 12). The concept of â€Å"total quality management† as developed towards the end of the twentieth century also instigated a significant change in the structure of organizations (Rowbotham, Azhashemi and Galloway 12). Under the management approach, all operations were to be managed together so as to enhance efficiencies in processes and qualities in productions. The theory also rooted for an establishment of a manager to be in charge of the human resource that deals with operation processes in an organization. The theory also outlined the requirements for operations managers. The need to empower individual employees in an organization’s operations has been another drive to the recent developments in the departmental management. The move to improve productivity of individual groups or members of teams within organization, a management of employees’ needs and capacities became a necessity for their empowerment in decision making and productivity. The need to empower employees therefore modified the roles in the department. Developments in technologies have also been shaping the approaches in the departmental management. New technologies such as information and communications technologies have had a direct impact on the management. Developments in communication systems have for instance been shaping the organization and control aspects that are functions of operations managers. Approaches to planning and designing of operation processes have also been transformed by developments in technology. The management’s monitoring and evaluation techniques have been greatly transformed from its former dependence on manual techniques to elec tronic applications. The invention of computers and other electronic devices have greatly transformed activities and approaches in operations management (Rowbotham, Azhashemi and Galloway 13). The general need for improvement in services offered to the general public has also been affecting the need for approaches to improve on operations in different sectors. This has resulted in further development of principles for aligning operations to meeting desired objectives. The general forces of competitive environments and the need for increased productivity and profitability have been dictating developments in the department of operations management (Rowbotham, Azhashemi and Galloway 13). Principles of Operations Management With the main aim of operations management being the improvement in processes in an organization, the management applies a number of approaches to achieving its objectives. As a tool to solving problems that arise in operations, a number of principles have been devel oped to aid operations managers in improving the efficiencies of their processes. Principles of operations management are applicable through the management system in accordance with the sub departments of operations management. One of the departments of operations management with an established principle is the â€Å"process capacity management† (Bruner 128). Capacity management deals the productivity level of processes in relation to efficiency. For a manager to ensure an understanding of production processes and how such processes can be managed, an understanding of the factors that affects such processes is a necessity. It has been established that in order â€Å"to increase capacity, increase the limiting resource† (Bruner 128). If the production process is experiencing a limitation in any of its necessary resources, inefficiency will be established with respect to this process which will then be transferred along the production chain to subsequent processes. The p rinciple in relation to capacity efficiency therefore demands that the limited resource be identified through analytical variations and measures taken to appropriately increase the resource. Another principle in operations management stipulates that â€Å"capacity depends on the configuration of processes† and that â€Å"product structure and process structure should be matched appropriately† (Bruner 128). It has been established that different production processes requires different approaches. A systematic approach with respect to a production process may be successful in efficiency but fail in a different production process. Efficiencies in processes also depend on the individual commodity that is being produced. Successful operations process therefore demand for an understanding of the process as well as that of available approaches to the operation. Compatibility is then compared before steps are taken towards operations (Bruner 131). The inventory department of a n organization is also an important part of the operations management. Having its direct impact on the production processes, principles of inventory management are critical to the parent operations management. One of the establishments in inventory provides that â€Å"the more production processes and quality are improved, the more inventories can be reduced without increasing the risk of short falls† (Bruner 134). This provision is in relation to balancing the movement of raw materials, work in progress as well as finished product in an organization’s system. The balance which is meant to control the cost of handling inventory as well as ensure an on demand availability of inventory is thus an essential. A reduced level of inventory, with consideration of demand, helps in reducing costs due to management of inventory especially in storage. Inventory management also calls for proper management of interaction time with customers during service delivery. This is to help reduce losses in time or consequential cost due to delayed service delivery. Quality management of operations also has established theories for efficiencies. Poor quality is for example established to have costly impacts in operations. Though ensuring quality can involve a lot of inputs, it is advantageous to the whole process. With increased quality, in a process, wastages due to defective productions are reduced or even eliminated. These among other established principles in the operation processes are elements of operations management (Bruner 140). Functions of Operations Management The fundamental role of the operations management is to ensure that it understands the whole operation process for an effective management of the activities that are involved. The management therefore must understand its aims which should include elements like â€Å"quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost† (Rowbotham, Azhashemi and Galloway 6). Establishment of optimum quality and t ime in operations will for instance be positively reflected in the desired efficiency and effectiveness in delivery of goods and services to customers. Developed level of flexibility and dependence on the other hand offers an organization a basis to control negative external forces that present threats to the organization’s operations. The understanding of the aims and the environment is thus a fundamental to an operations manager. It is also the duty of the operations management to ensure that processes are not stagnated at a given level of efficiency and productivity. Even as targets are obtained with respect to efficiency and even speed, satisfaction in a profit making organization is only derived at optimum levels. Measures to establish and drive operations to improvements lies with the operations management (Rowbotham, Azhashemi and Galloway 8). From the definition of operations management, it entails the provision for and the management and control of activities of the production and delivery of goods and services to the final consumer. Such management focuses on the aim to optimize efficiency and effectiveness of processes that are undertaken in an organization. In pursuit of these objectives, operations management in any given organization has responsibilities that include â€Å"planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling† elements in the organization’s production processes (Haynes 4). Planning, as one of the functions of operations management is a fundamental aspect not only to a particular operation, but to an entire supply chain and even the entire organization. The operations management is charged with the responsibility of making plans for the processes that are involved in the movement of inventory through out an organization. The management’s function of planning involves taking future forecasts into considerations and making appropriate decisions regarding the organization’s operations. In plannin g, the management makes decisions into â€Å"the activities and processes† that are involved (Haynes 4). This will include determining and ensuring that all necessary steps in operations are properly fixed in the organization’s schedule. The planning aspect of the management also determines the locations of operational equipments. The production process being extensive with distance factors with respect to locations of raw materials or the final consumers, the management makes decisions on where to locate the organization’s equipments for production processes. This is done with consideration to cost, distance and time factors from both the source of raw materials and the organization’s customers. The planning process also determines whether elements needed in the organization’s processes are supposed to be purchased from other parties or whether they are to be produced within the organization itself. Cost factors as well as quality and efficiency p lays an integral role in this aspect. The management conducts analysis into the determination of with of the options will suit its organization better. Considerations such as whether the organization can make such productions at a lower cost or in a more reliable way determine the direction of such decisions (Haynes 6). Decision over â€Å"what products to make† and the exact moments for such productions also fall under planning by the operations management. In consideration of market trends and in liaison with other departments, whether in the organization or external consultants, the operations management makes plans for timely productions that will ensure customers satisfaction as well as the correct commodities and brands according to market needs (Haynes 6). Once planning has been done as to the activities, locations, time and the items to be produced, the operations management assumes the role of organizing processes. Under its role as an organizer, the management outli nes the activities to be done as well as when such activities are to be undertaken. The department also ensures allocation of every activity in the chain to individual workers. Staffing is another function that is undertaken by operations management. The process of staffing begins with the search for individuals to fill vacancies in the organization all the way to internal promotions. The management will therefore, according to the needs of its organization make provisions for recruitments, selection, orientation and the continuous training of its employees. The first step in staffing involves the determination of the skills and expertise that the organization requires. This is then followed by sourcing and selection of qualified individual with potential to create the desired input. The operations management also makes decisions over the kind of training that is offered to its staff. The decision of whom to fire and when also lies with the operations management. It is also the func tion of the operations department to offer leadership role over processes and activities in its organization. The leadership role of the management is realized with its authority to make decisions over all processes in the organization. It thus determines course of actions to be taken at any step of the production chain. It also ensures that such orders are properly communicated to intended recipients. Having recruited and employed human resource, the operations management also ensures employees’ well being. It provides for support measures to employees as well as ensuring avenues for solving problems that may arise to face the staff. The management also has the role of controlling processes in the organization. It undertakes measures to ensure that the final output of the organization’s processes meet the desired quality. With this respect, the management ensures that working conditions and productivity are controlled to optimization (Haynes Romanda, 6). According to Elearn, planning and control is a necessity for the operations management following the process of designing operations in an organization. The author argues that â€Å"operations planning and control is concerned with ensuring that the day-to-day production process proceeds smoothly† (Elearn 57). In the planning process, the management establishes objectives that are supposed to be achieved in the operations. The allocation of activities to time and resources is then followed by scheduling to appropriately align â€Å"work patterns, processes and demand and supply† (Elearn 57). Assessment of all processes is then conducted with adequate monitoring and evaluation to ensure that the processes are implemented according to plans (Elearn 57). The organizational duty of operations management that covers decisions as to how operations are to be undertaken offers directions as to â€Å"what task will be done, where, when, and by whom† (Langabeer 16). The role also cove rs management of the duties of individual employees and interpersonal relationships between individuals in the organization. Efficiency of such administration can be adequately aided by the use of diagrams to monitor and influence individuals and their inputs for adequate productivity (Langabeer 16). Brown on the other hand expresses the functions of operations management in terms of the immediate subject of their jurisdiction. One of the functions of the operations managers is the management of human resource. Following an emerging trend of â€Å"flattening of organizational hierarchy†, organizational structures have been transforming to teams working under operators. An operator is then given the task to manage his or her team with respect to all aspects of human resource management. The operator is similarly in the power to manage assets and even expenditures with respect to the activities under his or her jurisdiction (Brown 17). Operations Management Strategies Strategie s refer to the process of establishing objectives to be accomplished. Strategies in operations management are therefore those approaches that are implemented by the management in its functions such as planning, organization and control among others. According to Lowson Robert, strategic management in operations includes â€Å"strategy formulation, strategy implementation and strategic control† (Lowson 42). Strategies adopted by an organization are supposed to cover both internal factors of an organization, the organization’s environment as well as the â€Å"firm’s ability to add value to what it does† (Lowson 42). Considerations such as the manner in which the management will supply the products of the organization, the level of expertise that will be required in the production processes, the levels of flexibilities that will be involved in operations among others are made prior to establishment of strategies. Since the aim of management strategies is to make improvements in processes and results, strategies often outline changes that are necessary to help the management and the entire organization to achieve its goals. A case study of Fisher Foods Company as illustrated by Robert for example provides an illustration of the basis of strategy in operations. The firm that supply food product has identifies that it receives high demand for its products towards the Christmas season. Its strategy therefore involves measures to adjust to the increasing demand for its products during the season. In the organization’s strategy, it resorts to â€Å"make changes in the type of services provided, work flows, capacity and flexibility, human resource levels, suppliers commitments† among others (Lowson 54). Strategies therefore provides for the identification of steps that needs to be taken by the management and the implementation of such steps to the attainment of the objectives and functions of operations management (Lowson 42). F ollowing the objective of operations management to meet customer’s expectations, improvements in the relationship between organization and the customers forms a part of the management’s strategies. Improvement in the way in which customers are attended to is normally prioritized by the management. With this respect, strategies are laid to ensure that customers are attended to in the shortest duration of time possible and that such responses to customer needs are availed on demand. Strategies with respect to customer relation also include improved accessibility to products and services to customers and enhanced range of productions to meet diversified needs of consumers. Operations management also outlines strategies for controlling production costs of its processes which is made through provisions for the production chain. Provisions for appropriate designs that can help in reducing the costs are also considered. Provision for improvement of quality of processes and pr oducts are also made under outlined strategies of the management with considerations regarding the quality of human resource, available technology among other factors (Chary 6). Strategies can again be based on technological advancements with the aim of changing quality or quantity of productions. Improving technology can for instance be aimed at reducing costs of production and increasing reliability in production. Strategies can also be applied to production processes and programs as well as the management of human resource. The active role of the operations management then looks into the implementation and control of the laid down strategy through administrative procedures (Eng 16). Objectives of Operations Management It has been established that operations management is charged with specific duties in an organization that relates to the production of goods and services. In pursuit of successful accomplishment of such functions, operations management generally has specified objec tives in their line of duty. The objectives can be classified into two categories, â€Å"customer service and resource utilization† (Kumar 11). In line with each and every organization’s drive which is revenues which then translates to profits, focus is attracted to customer satisfaction through the operations management that is responsible for the production and delivery of customer’s needs. The satisfaction of customers can be realized from two perspectives: costs of the good or service offered to the customer and the delivery of such products in time as demanded for by the customers. In the bid to fulfill customers’ needs in relation to these two aspects, operations management lays down objectives in each and every functional department that handles inventory. One of the critical sectors for aligning the objective is the manufacturing department. The management must take measures to ensure particular brands of goods and services as projected to be dema nded by customers are in the end provided. The objectives into what is to be produced then guide the manufacturing section on the type and quantity of goods or service to be offered. Objectives also outline timing for such activities in order to ensure a smooth manufacturing process and the final delivery. Operations management will also seek to establish outline for its transportation schedules with specification to times and durations of transporting commodities. The need to avail provisions to their destination at the right time and at a checked cost thus ensures an established degree plans for accomplishments. The final supply of commodities and services offered to customers are also established elements that forms essentials of the operations management’s objectives which are set to keep the customer satisfied (Kumar 12). Apart from the significance of the level of revenues to the profit made by an organization, production cost is also a significant factor in the determi nation of profit levels of the overall activities of an organization. It is thus prudent that an organization outlines its targets with respect to its resource utilization. Objectives are then made and pursued on how best customers can be kept satisfied with the organization’s products and at the same time, resources into productions are organized at cost that are reduced to minimum possible levels. Operations management thus sets objectives on how to achieve â€Å"maximum effect from resources or minimize their loss, under utilization or waste† (Kumar 12). With the dual purpose of ensuring customer satisfaction and reducing the costs incurred in resources, the central goal of the operations management thus remains to be the balancing of the two concepts, customer satisfaction and costs in resources, in order to satisfy the interest of both its organization in terms of profitability and that of customers in terms of timely and cost friendly deliveries (Kumar 13). Opera tions Performance Once objectives have been set into the balance between investments into customer satisfaction and the need to generate profits from operations, steps must be taken to ensure that the objectives are attained through thorough planning and implementation. The performance of operations activities with respect to levels of efficiencies pays a key role in balancing the customer satisfaction- profitability equation. The demand for better service by customers that has been triggered by developments in technology and increased range of products in markets has also pushed for the need for every organization to focus on its performance in order to strike a balance in the equation. Performance in operations activities has also been established to be a measurement to competence. Developments in market systems have transformed operations from being dependent on the supply chain into being the driver of the supply chain. As a result, operations and its managements has become the backbone of organizations and its performance is significantly reflected in final reports of organizations such as turn over ratios and profitability measures. Approaches to levels and types of technologies being used by an organization, the quality of human resource employed and the values attributed to the networks that the organization involves in are key determinants in the performance of operations activities. The need to establish performance level in operation processes also calls for measures to ensure that assets are efficiently â€Å"exploited, defended and developed† (Bettley, Mayle and Tantoush 1). According to David Barnes, indicators of operations performance include â€Å"cost, quality, speed, dependability and flexibility† (Barnes 24). The performance of operations management for example is determined by its ability to produce and deliver its products at low costs. Good managements will be expected to balance their combination of resources and activitie s in a way that the production will be realized at it lowest possible cost. At the same time, a good management is supposed to be able to produce goods that meet the required quality. The products should be in accordance with the purpose for which they are demanded, desired utility level and free from defects. Efficiently organized operations processes will ensure that these aspects are met in its production. Operations performance is also determined by the speed at which operations can be undertaken. Ability to undertake faster production processes to meet quick demands by customers while at the same time maintaining the quality of the product is another measure of performance. This creates good relations with customers resulting in a positive image in regard to the performance of an organization. Being reliable in meeting the needs of customers together with flexibility that exhibits ability to create new products, to produce a variety of products and services as well as â€Å"vo lume of production and time taken to produce† (Barnes 24) reflects on the performance of a management. A commendable performance will blend the conflicting objectives of customer satisfaction and resource control to drive an organization into improved productivity and profitability levels (Barnes 24). Operations Management in Oil and Gas Industry In the supply chain of oil and gas for example, the operations activities starts with explorations for availability of the petroleum resources by experts. The experts such as â€Å"geological and geophysical† technicians conduct research into the availability of the resources (Carmichael and Rosenfield 21). Steps such as acquisition of resources and contractors into the drilling process then follow which may depend on factors such as the depth of the resources. When sufficient resources are identified such as crude oil or natural gas, developments for the drilling mechanism is finalized and equipments put in place for the extra ction of the resources. Market for the extracted minerals is then established before or in the process of extraction of the resource. The whole process is however characterized by extensive monitoring and evaluation processes that start right at the exploration process all through to the point of sale of the crude oil or gas. The operations processes in the supply chain of oil and gas faces a lot of factors that calls for the application of the management to create a balance between consumer satisfaction in terms of pricing and organization’s profitability in the long run. One of the factors that faces and calls for measures from operations management in the oil and gas industry is the uncertainty in the success of finding oil reservoirs in the drilling process as well as the long term sustainability of the resource. Taxation by authorities over the extracted oil and gas also plays a role in the operations process. The timing of production as well â€Å"acreage and drilling costs† that falls under considerations of functions of operations managers are also critical in the production of oil and gas (Carmichael and Rosenfield xxx). The supply chain of oil and gas actually rely on the operations management’s undertakings such as â€Å"planning, estimating, modelling, organising and controlling resources and schedules with a view to optimising Project performance and quality† (Energy 1). Advantages and Disadvantages of Operations Management Operations management derives a lot of benefits to an organization through the application of the functions of operation managers. One of the advantages of the management is the resultant â€Å"effective utilization of scarce human and material resource† by an entity which enhances attainment of the institution’s objectives. Such effective applications results in relatively reduced production costs and subsequent profitability ratios. The management also helps in ensuring that work in p rogress as held by its institution is controlled at low levels to reduce costs of storage of such materials or products. Another advantage of the management is the ensured satisfaction of customer’s needs that is also a marketing strategy to the parent organization (Lowa 1). The major down fall of operations management is the conflicting interest that is imposed by the various functions of the management. As the management strives to satisfy the needs of its consumers through ensured quality and timely deliveries, there is the need to minimize cost in order to meet the organization’s need for profitability (Barmford and Forrester 5). Conclusion Operations management deals with the management of processes that cover activities that are associated with production and delivery of goods and services. The management undertakes its duties under principles to ensure that the objectives of organization’s production activities are attained. 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Rowbotham, Frank., Azhashemi, Masoud and Galloway, Les. Operations Management in Context. Bur lington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007. Print. Sox, Chuck. Designing and managing business operations. Web. This report on Operations Management: Oil and Gas was written and submitted by user Jax N. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.